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China is situated in the east of Asia and on the west bank of the Pacific Ocean of the eastern hemisphere. Its territory extends from Zengmuansha in the south to Mohe near the Heilongjiang River in the north, from the Pamir Plateau in the West to the joints of the Heilongjiang River and the Wusulijiang River in the east. On land, China has 15 neighboring countries: from the northeast counter clock- wise they are DPR Korea, Russia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Kirghizstan, Tadzhikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, Myanma, Laos and Vietnam. Land border extends over 20,000 kilometers. China is looking to the east and south, across the Yellow Sea, the East Sea and the South China Sea, at the countries and regions of Japan, the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei. The coast line of the mainland is more 18, 000 kilometers. The whole country covers an area of about 9.6 million square kilometers. Beside its vast sea and ocean, it is the largest country in Asia. It is about 5,500 kilometers across from the north to the south in China. While the Province of Heilongjiang in the north is still winter covered with snow and ice, the islands in the South China Sea in the south are all in hot summer time. Moreover, it is 5,000 kilometers across from the east to the west in the country, the moment when there is already bright sunshine in the mornings along the Wusulijiang River, it is still dark at night with stars in the sky on the Pamir Plateau.

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China lies mainly in the northern temperate zone under the influence of monsoonal winds. From September and October to March and April next year monsoonal winds blow from Siberia and the Mongolia Plateau into China and decrease in force as they go southward, causing dry and cold winter in the country and a temperature difference of 40 C between the north and south. The temperature in China in the winter is 5 to 18 C lower than that in other countries on the same latitude in winter. Monsoonal winds blow into China from the ocean in summer, bringing with them warm and wet currents, thus rain. Because of its vast territory, China has a

varied climate around the country. There is no summer in the year in the northern part of Hailongjiang Province whereas there is all but winter on Hainan Islands. Four seasons are distinct along the Huaihe River whereas the western part of Qing Zang Plateau is covered with snow all the year round. The southern part of Yun Gui Plateau is like spring within the whole year while the daily temperature in the inland places of Northwest China is a lot different. The average yearly rainfall in the country is 1,500 mm. and above in southeast coastal areas, becoming less and less northwestward to the inland areas to no more than 50 mm.

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